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  Center Line
By Geo Cloete
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Over the garden wall  lit by phone
By Arun Madisetti
posted Sunday, January 22, 2017
Bubble Coral.....
By Chris Miskavitch
posted Sunday, January 22, 2017
Predator   Horse Leech   and prey   Nightcrawler
By Michal Kubík
posted Sunday, January 22, 2017
By Sergiy Glushchenko
posted Sunday, January 22, 2017
Sea Urchin
By Khaled Zaki
posted Sunday, January 22, 2017

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641 Entries Found: Page 1  of  4

Zoom ToolA tool used for magnifying a digital image on the monitor
Zoom ratioThe change in focal length
zoom lenslenses with a variable focal length. They allow the photographer to remain in the same position whilst varying angle of view, or image size.
ZoomTo change the image size without changing subject to camera distance
ZIPLossless compression; supported by PDF and TIFF file formats. Like LZW, ZIP compression is most effective for images that contain large areas of single color.
YUVY=Luminance=0.59G+0.3R+0.11B, U=Normalised B-Y, V=Normalised R-Y. The color space representation used in PAL video and television transmission.
YCLuminance and Chrominance, i.e. the brightness information and color information parts of a composite video signal.
X-RayThat part of the electromagnetic spectrum above ultraviolet in frequency (i.e. of shorter wavelength than UV, but not as short as Gamma rays).
XenonA gas in photographic flash tubes.
XD picture CardFuji and Olympus proprietary storage media. The name xDPicture Card was derived from eXtreme Digital and with a capacity for up to 8Gb of data.
X SyncElectronic flash synchronization.
WorkspaceThe area of computer screen inside the Photoshop window. Once you have the workspace just the way you want it, you can save that configuration using the Window>Workspace>Save Workspace command.
Workflowthe process from taking your digital images, downloading them onto a computer and color managing them, through to printing and archiving them
WordspacingPlacing additional space between each word to fill out text in an image or design. Often used to justify the print.
WildcardAn asterisk used in a file search. For instance, a search for *.jpg would result in a list of files stored on the drive with the .jpg extension.
Wide Angle LensA wide angle lens is one that has an angle of view significantly wider than a normal human perspective. Typically less than 28mm (on the 35mm system).
wide angleshots taken with lenses that have an angle of view significantly wider than a normal human perspective
WIAstands for Windows Image Acquisition. This allows your digital camera, scanner, Photoshop, and Windows XP or ME to work together to acquire images.
Whitepointa pixel you define as being pure white
White PointThe point of minimum density i.e. Dmin in traditional photoprocessing parlance."
White BalanceCamera feature to compensate automatically for light sources of different color temperatures (e.g. sunlight, cloudy, fluorescent, and incandescent).
Wet ConnectorA connector that can be unplugged and reconnected underwater.
WBMPis the standard format for optimizing images for mobile devices, such as cell phones. WBMP supports 1-bit color, which means that WBMP images contain only black and white pixels.
WattThe unit of power W, i.e. the amount of energy dissipated (used) or delivered in unit time. 1 Watt = 1 Joule per Second.
Water PaperUses blotchy daubs that appear painted onto fibrous, damp paper, causing the colors to flow and blend.
VTRVideotape recorder. A videocassette recorder (VCR) can also be called a VTR, but a video recorder that uses openreel tapes cannot be called a VCR.
VoltVoltage, V The unit of electrical pressure.
Voice OverNarrated script added to a video
vizunderwater visibility - arguably the most important factor for underwater photography
Virtual memoryHard drive memory allocated to function as RAM
vignettingcropping of the corners of the frame. If unintentional, it is due to a misaligned lens or port.
ViewfinderThere are three main types of viewfinder employed on modern cameras. TTL=Through the Lens. OPT=Optical. EVF=Electronic.
Video8Analog video recording system using helical scanning and 8mm magnetic tape.
Video OutSome digital cameras allow you to output images directly to a TV or video in PAL and NTSC standards.
Video ControllerElectronic marker that controls the playback and recording of VCR’s during editing
Video CassettePlastic casing that holds videotape, available in different sizes and formats
VHSCVHS Compact. Small size VHS cassette intended for camcorders. Can be played back in fullsize VHS machines by means of an adapter.
VHSVideo Home System i.e. a video recording format intended primarily for domestic use. Analog recording system using helical scanning and 1/2 inch magnetic tape.
Vector graphicA resolution-independent image described by its geometric characteristics rather than by pixels
VectorVector graphics consist of lines and curves that are described to programs according to their geometric characteristics. When you edit vector graphics you edit these geometric characteristics. You can move, resize, or change the lines and curves without losing quality.
VCRVideo cassette recorder
Vanishing PointA Photoshop feature designed to allow the manipulation of photos within a three-dimensional space
UVCThat part of the ultraviolet spectrum nearest to X rays, i.e. short wavelength UV.
UVBBetween UVA and UVC.
UVAThat part of the ultraviolet spectrum nearest to visible light, i.e. long wavelength UV.
UVBeyond violet. That part of the electromagnetic spectrum which lies beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum, i.e. of shorter wavelength than violet, and invisible to humans.
USMUnsharp Mask. A process used to sharpen images
USBUniversal Serial Bus. The most common type of connector to transfer files from digital cameras and scanners. Data transfer speed up to 350 KB/s
Unsharp Mask filterA filter for increasing apparent sharpness of a digital image
Unsharp MaskSee USM
Underwater ConnectorFlash connectors that are specifically for underwater use.
under/overshots that are taken underwater but also have a subject that can be seen through the surface (in Snells' window)
UmaticSony analog videocassette recording system using helical scanning and 3/4 inch magnetic tape. First appeared mid 1970s. Once favored by industrial training departments, drama schools, etc. but now largely obsolete.
TWAINTWAIN is a standard for image input devices, such as scanners and digital cameras.
TV syncThe sync. signals are in the form of electrical pulses, which are added to the video (picture) signal.
TV standardsTV signals vary depending on where you are in the World. This makes equipment non compatible.
TTL meteringThrough The Lens metering. The basic method for determining photographic exposure is to measure the intensity of the ambient lighting and choose camera settings accordingly. It can apply to both flash and ambient light readings.
TTL FlashThrough The Lens flash metering.
TTLThrough The Lens. A term applied to viewfinders and metering systems that operate behind the lens. As such TTL is accurate because it sees what the lens sees.
TromboningThe tendency to over-use zoom
TrayThe metal plate or bar which screws to the bottom of a camera or housing so that a supporting arm for a flash unit or lamp may be attached to it. Also refers to the metal or plastic plate on which a camera sits inside an underwater housing.
TransparentAllowing light to pass through
TransitionLeads the viewer from one scene to another
Trackingthe process of creating an equal amount of spacing across a range of letters
Torn EdgesIs particularly useful for images consisting of text or high-contrast objects. The filter reconstructs the image as ragged, torn pieces of paper, and then colorizes the image using the foreground and background colors.
toolbarA special dialog that is (usually) always visible containing editing tools. It appears (by default) floating screen left
toning toolsconsist of the dodge tool and the burn tool. Used to lighten or darken areas of the image, dodge tools are based on a traditional photographer's technique for regulating exposure on specific areas of a print.
TitleWords or numbers that appear in the video
Time-base correctorTo reduce or eliminate errors caused by mechanical instability present in analog recordings
Time CodeA sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing system.
TiltTo change the camera angle
TIFFThe Tagged-Image File Format (TIF) is a bitmap format extensively used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms. It is found in most paint, imaging and DTP programs. TIFF is a lossless full-color image file format.
ThumbnailThese are low resolution copies of an image stored inside the image in order to display quickly. Some digital cameras and photo applications, including Windows Explorer, use them to display images in digital contact sheets.
TFTThin Film Transistor
Temperate WatersSeas with green water well north or south of tropical zones typically cold enough for drysuits!
Telephoto lensGives a close-up view of distant subjects
TBCTimeBase Corrector
Target LightA light, usually built into an underwater flash unit, used to give an accurate indication of the direction in which the flash unit is pointing.
TakeTo videotape a shot
tagged By default, a tagged document will have its profile information embedded upon saving in a file format that supports embedded ICC profiles. Untagged documents are saved by default without embedded profiles.
SyncSynchronization: the flash firing must syncronise with the shutter being open. Most cameras allow a maximum setting of 1/250th of a second
Swatches paletteAllows you to choose a foreground or background color and allows you to add or delete colors from the swatches library of colors.
S-Video ConnectorsS-Jacks, S-Video Inputs & Outputs and Y/C connectors
S-VideoAnalog video signal that carries the video data as two separate signals.
S-VHS-CSmall video cassettes for use with S-VHS –C camcorders
SVHSSuper VHS i.e. high band VHS.
Supplementary lensadditional elements that can be placed over a prime lens to alter focal length and angle of view
Super macroShots taken (at less than 1:1) with multiple extension rings, diopters, or teleconverters of extremely small subjects typically the size of a thumbnail
SunburstOptical phenomenon of distinct light rays observed underwater whilst looking up at the surface when the sun is out. A calm surface accentuates this effect.
Subtractive ColorsCyan, Magenta, and Yellow
StrokeOutlines the object on the current layer using color, a gradient, or a pattern. It is particularly useful on hard-edged shapes such as type.
StrobeElectronic flash gun.
StoryboardSeries of illustrations or images displayed in sequence on paper
StampIs best used with black-and-white images. The filter simplifies the image to appear stamped with a rubber or wood stamp.
Stainless SteelAn alloy of Iron, Chromium, Manganese, Silicon and Carbon (May also contain Nickel and Molybdenum). A4 stainless (AKA type 316) is completely resistant to seawater corrosion and is the preferred grade for marine applications.
StackSeveral photos grouped together in the Bridge workspace
sRGBA standard color space used by digital cameras.
Spot MeteringMetering system that places importance on a small area center frame. Useful for taking a reading of a high contrast subject before recomposing.
speed ratingthe speed rating for digital cameras depending on the sensor sensitivity, the sensor noise, and the appearance of the resulting image
Specular ReflectionDirect reflection, i.e. the glinting reflections from white and shiny objects which cause bleaching of the highlights in a photograph. Using a diffuse light source, i.e. a light source of large area, rather than a point source can reduce the problem.
Special EffectsThe illusions used in a film. There are optical effects – fades, slow motion, etc and mechanical effects props, scenery, models etc.
SPDIFSony / Philips Digital Interface Format. Digital audio interface standard, for transferring audio signals between CD players and DAT machines, etc. without passing into the analog domain.
SolarizeApplies an effect that mimics the accidental exposure of photographic film to light.
snoota funnel shaped tube placed over the flash head to direct the light
Snells WindowOptical phenomenon of elliptical window underwater observed looking up at an angle to the surface caused by refraction.
Smart ObjectTechnology first introduced in Photoshop CS2 that maintains the original form of an embedded image but still allows it to be edited and enhanced. Smart Objects are used in many non-destructive editing or enhancement techniques
Smart MediaSmartMedia is a wafer thin medium for storing images into flash memory chips. This media has limited capacity (28MB).
Smart FilterAn extension of the Smart Object technology that allows the non-destructive application of Photoshop filters to an image
SLRSingle Lens Reflex Camera. A camera that uses a mirror to redirect the image projected onto the film into the viewfinder. The mirror flips out of the way when the button is pressed to take the picture.
Slow SyncAt night and in low light you get a much more attractive picture balanced with flash lit foreground subjects.
SliderA sliding control in digital editing software used to adjust color, tone opacity, etc.
SliceA slice is a rectangular area of an image that you can use to create links, rollovers, and animations in the resulting Web page. Dividing an image into slices lets you selectively optimize it for Web viewing.
SlaveA flash unit that is triggered to fire by the light output from another flash unit (the master flash).
Sketch filtersFilters in the Sketch submenu add texture to images, often for a 3D effect. The filters also are useful for creating a fine-arts or hand-drawn look. Many of the Sketch filters use the foreground and background color as they redraw the image.
SilhouetteImage that is back-lit, and appears dark against a lighter background.
Shutter Priority(S) Exposure mode where the camera determines the optimum shutter speed for you.
Shutter LagThe total time taken from pressing the shutter release to the shutter firing. This can be a significant delay for digital cameras and is possibly the major complaint that digital photographers have!
ShutterThe shutter is an integral part of all cameras. It opens to allow light through. The greater the range of shutter speeds a camera has the better.
ShotA recorded scene
Shore HardnessA hardness scale from 0 to 100 used to express the deformability of elastic materials (rubbers). Commonly available O-rings have a hardness of around 70sh.
ShootA production where a scene is recorded
SharpeningSharpening is an algorithm designed to enhance edge detail.
SequenceA series of logical shots
SensitivityIn a digital camera context sensitivity corresponds to film speed.
selectiona selected area that allows editing changes. Areas outside a selection are protected. Hold Shift to add, Option to subtract, Ctrl + D to deselect and Ctrl + I to invert
Secondary ColorsCyan, Magenta, and Yellow
SECAMSequential Couleur avec Memoire The color television system used in France, French overseas territories (not Canada), and Russia.
Sealoc ConnectorAlso known as a Nelson connector. A 2 pin wet connector, i.e. a connector which can be pulled out and plugged in underwater. Used for flash synchronization on the Sea & Sea Motormarine Mk1. Also used as a telephone connector on fullface diving masks.
Sea And Sea ConnectorA 4 pin waterproof connector used with the Sea & Sea TTL flash system.
SDThe SD Card is a highly sophisticated, highly secure memory device about the size of a postage stamp.
SCUBASelf Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (as opposed to diving equipment supplied with air from the surface).
Screen frequencyrefers to the resolution of half tone screens (the patterns of dots used in printing).
Screen directionThe direction that the action flows across the screen
scratch diskWhen your system does not have enough RAM to perform an operation, Photoshop and ImageReady use a proprietary virtual memory technology, also called scratch disks. A scratch disk is any drive or a partition of a drive with free memory. By default, Photoshop and ImageReady use the hard drive that the operating system is installed on as its primary scratch disk.
ScenePart of the action in a single location
ScartSocieté de Constructeurs d' Appareils Radio Recepteurs et Téléviseurs. A 21 pin interface connector for direct audio + video connection between TV and VCR, DVD, etc. Also known as a 'Péritel' or 'Euroconnector'.
ScaleA ratio of size
Saturationthe purity and strength of the color and is defined by the percentage of gray in the image (0 to 100 percent). Brightness is how light or dark a color is and is defined by a percentage (0 percent is black and 100 percent is white).
SatinApplies shading to the interior of a layer that reacts to the shape of the layer, typically creating a satiny finish.
Sand CastThe molten aluminum is poured into a sand mold to form the housing body
SampleTo select a color value for analysis or use
S videoSeparated Video i.e. two signals in two cables, one being the video, blanking and synchronization, the other being the chrominance (color) signal.
Rubber StampA tool used for replicating pixels in digital imaging. Also called Clone Stamp Tool
RS232Early digital cameras used RS232 (serial) connections for transferring data to external devices (PC's)
Royalty freea term stock photography agencies use to denote that an image is licensed for multiple use. Usually a eupemism for shots the agency can't sell. Avoid this like the plague!
RMSThe square Root of the Mean Squared. The RMS of an alternating voltage or current the equivalent steady (direct) voltage or current which will have the same heating effect.
RLE(Run Length Encoding) Lossless compression; supported by some common Windows file formats.
RIP(Raster Image Processor) A processor (like a CPU) included in an output device that converts an image’s data into the dot pattern. It is this dot pattern that is printed onto film or paper.
rights manageda term stock photography agencies use to denote that an image is licensed for one specific use only
RGBRed, green, and blue the three primary colors and color space used by film and monitors.
RFRadio Frequency
Reversal ProcessingThe process in which film is exposed so that it will become a positive instead of a negative or a negative instead of a positive.
Reversal FilmPositive (i.e. slide) film. Film in which the original negative image is reversed during the development process to produce a positive transparent image.
ReticulationSimulates the controlled shrinking and distorting of film emulsion to create an image that appears clumped in the shadow areas and lightly grained in the highlights.
ResolutionResolution is the term used to describe the amount of data in a file, screen display, or printed image etc.
ResistanceAll electrical conductors (except superconductors) have some resistance, which means that they convert electrical energy into heat. A resistor is simply a device for which the property of resistance is accurately characterized.
Resamplingrefers to changing the pixel dimensions (and therefore display size) of an image. When you downsample (or decrease the number of pixels), information is deleted from the image. When you resample up (or increase the number of pixels), new pixels are added based on color values of existing pixels. You specify an interpolation method to determine how pixels are added or deleted.
Registration marksWhen printing, these marks are used to print marks on the image for alignment on the press (bull’s-eyes and star targets).
Refractive IndexValue for refraction of a material
RefractionThe bending of rays of light as they pass from one medium into another, e.g. from air to water, or from air to glass.
ReflectorA surface used to reflect light in order to fill shadows
Red EyeWhen light from a flash reflects back from the pupil of subjects' eye it creates an unattractive red spot. A camera with a red eye reduction feature fires a pre flash a thousands of a second before the real flash to make the subjects pupils close.
RecordCapturing audio or video onto videotape
reciprocityrefers to the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines exposure of light-sensitive material. Within a normal exposure range for film stock, for example, the reciprocity law states that exposure = intensity × time.
Rebikoff PortA lens that corrects for refraction at the airwater boundary on an underwater camera, characterized by a flat surface in contact with the water and a concave surface in contact with the air.
Ready LightLED indicator that lights when the flash unit is ready to fire
Raw Cameraan applicastion that ships with CS for processing RAW files
RAWRAW files contain the same data captured by the CCD with no processing by the camera. This requires a ‘plug in’ for your image editing software to be able to open them.
RasterizeConverting vector data to raster data. Performing this conversion is called rasterizing.
RasterisationThe conversion of a vector based graphical representation into an array of pixels.
RasterThe rectangular area of illumination formed on a TV screen by the scanning process. An array of lines or dots of varying brightness which, when viewed from a suitable distance, produces the illusion of an image.
rangefindera simple window in the camera or accessory on top that approximates the coverage of the lens for framing composition
RAMRandom Access Memory
Quick Selection ToolA selection tool added to Photoshop in version CS3 that tries to predict the shape of the selection as you draw. The feature takes into account tone, color, texture and shape of the underlying photo as it creates the selection
Quick Mask modeTemporary alpha channel used for refining or making selections
QuenchThe process of extinguishing the strobe (flashgun) by the camera.
push processa development technique that increases the speed of the film being processed
PSDPhotoShop (PSD) is the format produced by the Adobe PhotoShop graphics editor. Note that the PSD specification changes with every whole number version release of PhotoShop, but is backwards compatible; so you must have the latest version to be sure of being able to open any PSD file.
Program(P) Program mode. Exposure mode that allows the camera determines the optimum shutter speed/aperture combination for you.
Prime lensA lens attached directly to the camera body
Primary ColorsRed, Green, and Blue
Pre-pressStage where digital information is translated into output suitable for the printing process
pre-flashMany digicams employ a slightly different system for TTL exposure. First they fire a pre-flash, which is measured, and they calculate exposure based on that. This happens so quickly that the eye notices only one flash.
PPIPoints per inch. Same thing as DPI
PostScriptA page description language for medium to high resolution print devices. The language consists of software commands and protocols that allow you to send data (including picture and font information) from your computer to the printer for output.
post-productiona euphemism for editing in a photo manipulation program. An excuse for sloppy work e.g. 'we'll fix it in post!'
PostproductionVideo or audio editing
PosterizeCreates a poster effect on the bitmap by quantizing the bitmaps colors to a specified number of color levels per plane. i.e. the image is made out of discrete blobs of color with obvious boundaries between them.
Portrait LensA lens of longer focal length than standard. Typically 100mm + (on the 35mm system).
PortOptical quality window in an underwater housing (by analogy with a ship's 'port hole').
PlasterMolds an image from 3D plaster, and then colorizes the result using the foreground and background color. Dark areas are raised, light areas are sunken (or reverse the effect by choosing the Invert option).
Pixel DepthThe amount of computer data required to store the color information for each pixel.
PixelPicture element: a dot or a small area of a picture that carries the three attributes: hue, color saturation, and brightness. Any picture can be made up of an array of dots with these attributes, viewed from a distance that the dots are not visible.
Pincushion DistortionPincushion Distortion is a problem associated with telephoto lenses whereby the image appears distorted inwards.
PhotoshopThe brand leader in digtal image manipulation program produced by Adobe Software. You Hoover the floor, Google the Net, and Photoshop your images! When we use Photoshop we mean any such program.
PhotomergeAdobe’s own panoramic stitching utility
PhotocopySimulates the effect of photocopying an image. Large areas of darkness tend to copy only around their edges, and midtones fall away to either solid black or white.
PerspectiveAttribute of lens focal length that determines the apparent relationship between foreground and background i.e. compresses or exaggerates it
PDFPortable Document Format is a flexible, cross-platform, cross-application file format. Based on the PostScript imaging model, PDF files accurately display and preserve fonts, page layouts, and both vector and bitmap graphics. In addition, PDF files can contain electronic document search and navigation features such as electronic links.
PCMPulsecode modulation. Digital audio recording mode used by tape recorders.
641 Entries Found: Page 1  of  4